Confirmation of the systematic presence of tin particles in fallopian tubes or uterine horns of Essure implant explanted patients: A study of 18 cases with the same pathological process

Objective: To examine associations between local and systemic symptoms and the wear of the tin weld of Essure implants.
Design: study of a series of cases.
Settings: Two French hospitals.
Participants: Eighteen patients explanted by hysterectomy and salpingectomy for removal of their Essure implants between September 2019 and July 2020, have had a common anatomopathological process.
Main outcome measures: anatomopathological examination by optical microscopy and mineralogical analysis of
the fallopian tube or uterine horn with scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray
(SEM-EDX). Evaluation of local and systemic symptoms with a questionnaire. Examination of blood metal assays
(nickel, chromium, and tin).